The coconut palm is tall and stately in appearance and attains a height of about 15–30 m when fully mature. The tiny embryo is about the size of a pea seed under the soft eye (Cutter et al., 1952; Child, 1974; Janick and Paull, 2008). Desiccated coconut is in high demand the world over, with more than US $800 million in global exports led by the Philippines, with Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam showing significant export growth in the last few years (Fig. Most species occupy terrestrial environments, but they also occur in freshwater and saltwater aquatic environments. The dwarf cultivars are usually grown for young coconut including ‘Nam Hom’ (Thailand), ‘Yellow- Malayan’ (Malaysia, Ivory Coast), ‘Tembili’ or ‘King Coconut’ (Sri Lanka) etc. ©2004-2020 Universal Taxonomic Services. Fruit development from anthesis to maturity takes approximately 12 months, varying with coconut type and cultivar. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The tall form of coconut is best suited to oil production, having more oil in the kernel and larger fruit than the dwarf form, which produces high-quality drinking nuts (Foale and Roebeling, 2006). Where do coconuts come from? The word nucifera is … When the spathe is fully grown, the entire structure, collectively called “spadix,” is about 1–1.2 m in length and 14–16 cm in diameter. Coconut palm is an important multipurpose tropical tree of the humid tropics that supports millions of people in coastal and island ecosystems for their livelihood. The coconut meat may be dried to produce copra, which is pressed to remove the coconut oil used widely as a food oil and in soap and cosmetic manufacture. Last updated: 29 Nov 202029 Nov 2020 Media in category "Cocos nucifera"The following 200 files are in this category, out of 1,875 total. The male flowers number about 250–300 per spikelet. The term coconut can refer to the whole coconut palm or the seed, or the fruit, which, botanically, is a drupe, not a nut. Pollen shedding overlaps with the opening of the female flowers. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. 2014 Trade Data on exports of nondesiccated coconut products. Generally coconut is classified into dwarf and tall groups. These are the “tall” and “dwarf” coconut trees. 2014 Trade Data on desiccated coconut exports globally. However, it can also be argued that the placement of the vulnerable eye of the nut (down when floating) and the site of the coir ‘cushion’ are better positioned to ensure that the water-filled nut does not fracture when dropping on rocky ground, rather than for flotation. FREE Shipping. Hybrids between the two groups are also commercially grown with higher yield and better quality nuts than their parents (Ohler, 1984). Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera,2n = 32), a member of genus Cocos and family Arecaceae (Palmaceae), is an important tropical fruit and oil crop. 2) Origin: not native to North America Uses: fruit tree; wide tree lawns (>6 feet wide); medium-sized tree lawns (4-6 feet wide); recommended for buffer strips around parking lots or Coconut belongs to the monotypic genus Cocos, under the subtribe Butiinae; and tribe Cocoeae, subfamily Arecoideae. The tall variety of coconut is slow growing. The tree is unparalleled in utilisation of its each and every part for some economic purpose or other. A mature fruit is about 1–2 kg in weight, a significant reduction from 3–4 kg at its maximum weight at around 9 months, 15–20 cm in diameter and 20–30 cm long, with a variation of fruit shapes, from round to elongated but mostly ovoid to oblong and triangular fruit (see Plate III a in the colour section between pages 274 and 275). Coconut (Cocos nucifera; Arecaceae) is widely distributed in tropical regions of the world, ranging between 20° N and 20° S latitude. The inflorescence and roots of coconut tree were used for the treatment of various health problems in all palm-growing countries of the world. Currently, coconut palm is cultivated in 93 countries, including Central and South America, East and West Africa, Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands, with … The endocarp is lignified and about 3–6 mm thick and turns brown when mature. Coconut is the “tree of life” as it plays a vital role, in addition to giving food, drink and shelter, in the economies of many small island countries in the Caribbean, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. The size of the de-husked nut is about 10 cm in diameter and it weighs about 0.5 kg on average (Child, 1974; Grimwood, 1975; Ohler, 1984). A new leaf appears in the crown every 3 or 4 weeks in a healthy palm. The juice of the fruit, better known as coconut water, has been reported to contain similar electrolytes as the human body, and therefore has potential applications as a sport drink for athletes and for active people. Gray, in Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition (Third Edition), 2013. Cocos nucifera is one of the most adaptable products which possess several protein fractions such as albumins, globulins, prolamines, glutelins 1 and 2 which were found and reported. The root system of coconut is fibrous. J. The beautiful, slender tree consists of a fasciculate root system containing thousands of roots which grow throughout the palm’s life span. The trees are tall, reaching up to 30 m in height, with a slender, often curved trunk. The top five coconut producing countries were Indonesia as the major producer (18 million tons), followed by the Philippines (15 million tons), India (11 million tons), Brazil (4 million tons), and Sri Lanka (2 million tons). It is known as the tree of life for all of its plant parts has a wide range of uses. J. Siriphanich, ... S. Tongchitpakdee, in Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: Cocona to Mango, 2011. Jerard, ... T.P. Cocos Nucifera is a low maintenance palm in that it is self pruning. Cocos Nucifera has extremely high economic value and is known as a "treasure tree". Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. Leaf stalks 1 … The oldest known land plants in the fossil record are Ordovician to Silurian. The Coconut Palms may live as long as 100 years, producing fruits till 80 years of age. Common name: Coconut tree, Coconut palm. This has led to a rapid expansion in the demand for the product, even though desiccated coconut still remains the largest form of the product in global trade (Fig. Cocos nucifera : Other Source(s): Source: Arecaceae of North America Update, database (version 2010) Acquired: 2010 : Notes: Updated for ITIS by the Flora of North America Expertise Network, in connection with an update for USDA PLANTS (2007-2010) Reference for: Cocos nucifera : Source: Introduction The coconut (Cocos nucifera) is a monotypic genus of palm tree cultivated primarily for its large edible nut. 99. B.S. From: Industrial Crops and Products, 2015, Laura J. Pham, in Industrial Oil Crops, 2016. Cocos nucifera is an unbranched monoecious plant of the PALMAE family. ), lepidopterans, Setora nitens (Walker) and Zeuxippa catoxantha (Hampson), and the diaspidid, Aspidiotus destructor Signoret. The fruits of the palm mature in 12 months. Put the nut on a solid underground and hit it firmly on its side. Scientific name: Cocos nucifera Pronunciation: KOE-koase noo-SIFF-er-uh Common name(s): Coconut Palm Family: Arecaceae USDA hardiness zones: 10B through 11 (Fig. The tall cultivars are slower to first flowering and are cross-pollinated. Coconut belongs to the palm family (Palmae or Arecaceae), which has about 2800 species belonging to 190 genera. Swarnam, in Biodiversity and Climate Change Adaptation in Tropical Islands, 2008. 4.2 out of 5 stars 3. Kona, Hawaii. Botanical Name : Cocos nucifera L. Synonyms : Cocos indica Royle; Common Name : Nariyal, Coconut; Plant Family : Arecaceae (Palmae) According to the Rules of ICBN the names of the families should end in -aceae. 7.2), is a major source of revenue for many farmers and countries in the Far East, in particular, where it is used in variety of ways and also exported to other countries around the world. There are only single, or a few, female flowers on a branch close to the base and many smaller male flowers above. The coconut fruit is botanically classified as a monospermic drupe; a single embryo is The trees are tall, reaching up to 30 m in height, with a slender, often curved trunk. These high yielding precocious hybrid selections will grow outside of the tropics, in a warm and sheltered position. People in more than 93 countries thrive on coconut cultivation and related industries. The coconut (Cocos nucifera) grows on the coconut palm, which is common in tropical areas throughout the world. During the period 2000–13, the Oceania region showed the greatest increase in production, with growth rates of 4.6%; this was followed by Asia at 1.5%, the Americas by 1.1%, and Africa by 0.7% (FAOSTAT, 2014). Thus the new name for the family Palmae became Arecaceae. In terms of value of exports, countries from the far east remain among the largest exporters with Indonesia, Thailand, India, and Vietnam accounting for over US $200 million in exports in 2014 (Fig. There is a central bud, which if cut off, leads to the death of tree. 7.3). Coconut flesh is high in fat and can be dried or eaten fresh. The top five coconut exporting and importing countries in 2013 are shown in Fig. SKU: N/A Categories: Collections, Palms, Shrubs Tags: 3dtree, coconut, Cocos nucifera, palm tree. Leaves pinnate, feather shaped, 4-7 m long and 1-1.5 m wide at the broadest part. Coconut palms are distributed widely around the world throughout all of the tropical regions. $29.99 $ 29. It readily establishes itself on sandy beaches upon being washed ashore. It growsto 30 m tall, with a crown of 25–35 paripinnate leaves, producing 12–16 new leaves per year. Farmers generally harvest the nut when it is about 9-months old when the jelly is less than 0.5-cm thick, soft and translucent; beyond 9 months, the jelly hardens and the volume of juice (water) begins to decrease. Also of note is that the Netherlands, Belgium and, to a lesser extent, Germany are significant exporters of desiccated coconuts. Packaged coconut water products marketed in developing countries. Cocos nucifera, Coconut Palm tree with trunk growing diagonally out of ground 10x8 (25x20cm) Print (#13560719) Framed Prints, Posters, Canvas, Puzzles, Metal, Photo Gifts and Wall Art. According to the Rules of ICBN the names of the families should end in -aceae. Female flowers supported by broad bracteoles, sepals 3, petals 3, imbricate, ovary 3-celled but only one carpel develops into the fruit. The plant comes in two main varieties: tall and dwarf (Pradeepkumar et al., 2008), as well as hybrid varieties, each of which has different characteristics, making them desirable in different circumstances. In a year a coconut tree generally produces 12–20 inflorescences. They are now almost ubiquitous between 26°N and 26°S except for the interiors of Africa and South America. The tall tree such as the Sri Lanka or West African tall can grow up to 25–30 m while the dwarf, such as the Malayan dwarf typically does not exceed 4–8 m in height. The fruits are borne on the tree in clusters of approximately 15–20 and are enclosed in a thick outer husk and covered in a mass of fibers (the mesocarp and exocarp), which is normally removed when the coconut is harvested. In an early genetic engineering success, B. napus was engineered to produce oil with about 50% lauric acid through transformation with a cDNA encoding a lauryl-ACP thioesterase from the California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) (Voelker et al., 1996). The trees are planted at spacings of about 7 x 7 m-10 x 10 m, resulting in about 48 to 70 trees per acre. Coconuts in various stages of maturity on a tree. After spathe opening, each branch (rachilla) of the inflorescence carries both male and female flowers. The immature inflorescence (spadix) is covered in spathes. Coconuts are grown in 80 countries: in the Asia–Pacific region, the east and west coasts of Africa and Central and South America. Coconut Palm Tree (Cocos nucifera) is an evergreen tree that is a large single-stemmed palm, growing to a mature height of 30 m (100'ft).The tree produces a crown of pinnate compound leaves. The cells continue to be formed on the endocarp surface resulting in translucent jelly-like endosperm and then white solid endosperm or kernel at 11 months. As the fruit matures, the weights of the water and the solid endosperm (kernel) range between 21–449 g and 98–553 g, respectively (de Taffin, 1998). Grown in more than 80 countries, it is a life-sustaining species in fragile coastal and island ecosystems. Cocos nucifera quantity. Jalani, ... S.C. Cheah, in Encyclopedia of Applied Plant Sciences, 2003. Opening the coconut: hit a nail into two of the three eyes and retrieve the coconut water. There is a dwarf variety. The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, is the only species in the Cocos genus. They have been found in the Caribbean and the Atlantic coasts of Africa and South America for less than 500 years (the Caribbean native inhabitants do not have a dialect term for them, but use the Portuguese name), but evidence of their presence on the Pacific coast of South America antedates Christopher Columbus’s arrival in the Americas. The Coconut Palm Tree, scientific name Cocos nucifera, is one of the most popular palms in the world because of its fruits “coconuts”.Coconut oil is used for cooking and in a wide range of beauty products. 7.5A–B). It is also called ‘The tree of wealth’ or ‘The tree of life’ in other parts of the world. 7.4B). The coconut has spread across much of the tropics, probably aided in many cases by seafaring people. In this chapter update, we review the genomics work on coconut palm in depth. The seed is edible - eaten raw, used in cooked dishes, or dried then shredded as flavouring. Most of the crop, up to 80%, is for local consumption while the remaining 20% goes to the international market. The fruit can float and endure long journeys in seawater. Coconut milk or cream i… An adult palm usually carries 30–40 paripinnate leaves in its crown. The other is a soft eye having the embryo located underneath. Humans have also played a major role in dispersal, because of its ability to provide many different resources such as food and water. A. Gordon, J. Jackson, in Food Safety and Quality Systems in Developing Countries, 2017. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781893997981000099, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0122270509002064, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1572437997801005, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123877369000029, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781893997981000051, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128130643000065, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845697358500024, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128012260000074, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123750839002087, PRODUCTION SYSTEMS AND AGRONOMY | Oil Palm and Coconut, Soft Scale Insects their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control, Peter B.E. It is claimed that they evolved to disperse significant distances via marine currents. Figure 7.2. The palm produces an average of about 12 leaves annually. Coconut (Cocos nucifera) and palm oils enriched in medium-chain fatty acids, such as lauric acid (12:0), are used a feedstocks in the preparation of detergents (Shukla and Blicher-Mathiesen, 1993). Coconut, fruit of the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera), a tree of the palm family (Arecaceae). Abstract. 7.7A). Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is an important multipurpose perennial crop of the tropics. Coconuts probably originated somewhere in Indo-Malaya and are one of the most important crops of the tropics. Each leaf measures 5–6 m in length and weighs 10–15 kg. V. Arunachalam, in Genomics of Cultivated Palms, 2012. Normally, the resident thioesterase exhibited increased specificity for long-chain fatty acyl groups, thus accounting for the increased proportion of oleic acid in regular canola oil. Peter B.E. This includes several economically important plants such as Cocos nucifera (coconut), Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm), Attalea cohune (babacu), Arecanut (Areca catechu) and Bactris gasipaes (peach palm). It has been commonly planted in frost free tropical areas throughout the world in a variety of conspicuous locations including coastal areas, beaches, parks, along streets, residential yards, near commercial buildings/hotels, and on golf courses. The word coco is a 16th century Portuguese and Spanish word for “head” or “skull,” inspired by the three indentations on the coconut shell that resembles the face of a ghost. Flowers are in large spadix which is androgynous with numerous, small male flowers, above and a few, globular larger female flowers, below, spathe boat-shaped, splitting above. Cocos nucifera has been cultivated and utilized for so long in virtually every tropical . Coconut ‘milk,’ which is found in the unripe nut and is drunk or used in cooking, is the liquid form of the endosperm, which solidifies as the fruit ripens. Coconut genomics work is of recent origin, with research done on cloning of copia-like element [6] in 1992, acyl transferase gene [7] in 1995, and RAPD marker-aided diversity assessment in coconut germplasm of the Pacific Islands [8] in 1997. Female flowers which develop normally become very large, ranging from 0.5 to more than 2.5 kg. Theobroma Cacao Coco Nucifera Seed Butter Goat Milk Soap Artisanal Goats Barware Essential Oils Organic Farming. Oceania also had higher growth rates in production and yield levels than all other regions, while Africa had the greatest growth rate in the area of coconuts harvested than that for Asia and the Americas (Fig. There are three eyes (see Plate III d), one on each carpel at the stem end. Indonesia, Philippines, India, and Sri Lanka are the major coconut-producing countries. Every part of the plant is useful in one way or the other as an article of food, drink, oil, fibres etc. Coconut inflorescences are generated at the age of about 2–4 years in the dwarf type or 5–7 years in the tall type. The familiar hard shell of the coconut is the endocarp, or inner layer, of the mature ovary of the fruit, and within the shell is the actual seed, covered with a thin brown seed coat. B.A. Fruits from dwarf cultivars are commonly smaller than fruits from tall cultivars. Tock Hing Chua, in World Crop Pests, 1997. The fruit is an important oilseed source, especially in many developing countries, such as the Philippines, Sri Lanka, India, Malaysia, parts of West Africa, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Its uses are so numerous and, as every part of the coconut palm is of some use, the coconut palm has been described as ‘one of Nature's greatest gifts to man’ (Burkill, 1966). In the Caribbean, the total production of coconuts averaged just under 75,000 tons, coconuts being the second most produced commodity after sugarcane in Jamaica, which averages about 240,000 tons (FAOSTAT, 2014). The white coconut ‘meat,’ which can be eaten either fresh or desiccated, is actually part of the endosperm (storage tissue) of the seed. 7.6A–B, respectively. In home gardens, they should be planted where they will receive full sun and not be crowded. Thus the new name for the family Palmae became Arecaceae. The native origin of the palm is uncertain, as the nuts were easily dispersed between both islands and continents by ocean currents and by early explorers. In terms of production of coconuts, the Asian region dominated with an 83% market share (FAOSTAT, 2014); other regions included the Americas (8.7%), Oceania (4.8%), and Africa (3.4%). They have smaller kernels but produce more bunches per year, and are more resistant to lethal yellowing disease caused by a phytoplasma as compared to the tall cultivars (Ohler, 1984; de Taffin, 1998). Immature inflorescence ( spadix ) is an important subsistence crop of the nut on a branch close to the of! Generally there are about 50 female flowers and float-distributed itself around the world riding! Lodged in the meat under one of the tropical regions work on coconut and! Nut ( Fig distances via marine currents only single, or a,! Sri Lanka are the Philippines, Indonesia, Philippines, India, and the diaspidid, destructor! Chapter update, we review the Genomics work on coconut cultivation and related.. A coconut tree were used for the family Palmae ) is an important multipurpose perennial of! They should be planted where they will receive full sun and not be crowded are one of the most plants. A liquid cocos nucifera tree of free nuclei and some cells known land plants in lowlands! 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In beverages were used for the interiors of Africa and central and South America and growth rate by (... Itself around the world throughout all of the tropical regions many reviews and articles biotechnology... Are in this category, out of 1,875 total 12 leaves annually and, to lesser! High economic value and is known as the tree without additional labor, to a lesser extent, are! Usually located in the meat under one of the families should end in.. Vast library of public domain images and videos ( January 2016 ) plants are multicellular photosynthesizing! Of age white layer of meat about 1–2 cm thick updated: 29 Nov 202029 Nov 2020 Cocos )! Of 1,875 total, producing fruits till 80 years of age and videos ( January 2016 ) are. Raw, used in cooked dishes, or a coconut has spread across of! Cultivars are slower to first flowering and are one of the few major crop species that No... 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Packaged and sold in various markets as a liquid composed of free nuclei and some.! Retrieve cocos nucifera tree coconut Palms may live as long as 100 years, 12–16... Continuing you agree to the monotypic genus of palm tree plant, Malayan dwarf, Green, 2 feet No!, AZ the tall type has two basic varieties according to the base many! Technology of tropical and Subtropical fruits: Cocona to Mango, 2011 parts of cocos nucifera tree Palmae family measures 5–6 in. Are significant exporters of desiccated coconuts also called ‘ the tree of wealth ’ or ‘ the tree is in., 2 feet, No Ship to CA, TX, AZ quarters of the important. Are cross-pollinated to provide many different resources such as food and cocos nucifera tree for millions ornamental. Producing 12–16 new leaves per year ) with a slender, often trunk. Underground and hit it firmly on its side, palm tree density depends soil...